Lifestyle, climate and available building materials are major influences in the architectural style of traditional houses anywhere.
The Bedouin, nomadic by nature, used to live in animal hide tents during the winter, and arish shelters during the hot summer months. These palm frond shelters were airy in summer, as it allowed for ventilation and were either square or rectangular with flat roofs, or triangular tent-like structures. Palm fronds have also been a commonly used building material in the fishing, pearling and trading settlements on the coast. Barasti or arish houses were built by first constructing wooden frames of mangrove poles, split-palm trunks or any other wood that was available. The palm fronds were then used in two different ways: as straight poles with the leaves stripped off for creating screens, and with the leaves still on as roof thatch.
Mangrove poles were imported from East Africa and used extensively in the construction of houses made from coral and coral rag (limestone composed of ancient coral material) that were built on the coast by the rich from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A lime mixture derived from seashells was usually used as mortar, as well as plaster. Mangrove poles were not only used to strengthen the walls, but also as roof beams. These poles had a length of 3.5 metres, which imposed a rigid geometry on these coastal houses. The ceilings resting on the mangrove poles were usually made of planks cut from date palms, while the roofs were flat and thatched with palm fronds.
Inland, houses were built from stone gus (mud mixture made into blocks) or stones. The lower section of these houses consisted of stone blocks or stones to strengthen the buildings and help against erosion. These were bonded together with sarooj mostly made from a blend of Iranian red clay and manure.
In the mountains irregular shaped stone blocks were used to construct buildings. While no mortar were used, the inside walls were plastered with mud, and the flat roofs were covered with palm fronds, wood or mountain bushes. Gravel was also sometimes used for the roof, and as such, these dwellings appeared to melt into the landscape. Although the houses mostly had flat roofs, they could also be pitched. Occasionally built half into the ground, these houses were mostly rectangular, with the odd round one.
In an environment with extremely hot and humid summers, ventilation is of the utmost importance. An ingenious design and distinct element that was introduced in the area during the early part of the 20th century were the wind towers or barajils from Iran. These towers encouraged and regulated a downward flow of air and water was sometimes sprinkled at the bottom of the tower to cool down the ambient temperature within the house.
Another important influence on the architecture was the Islamic teachings that promote modesty and privacy. Courtyards were the anchoring element, and the living quarters with verandas all opened up onto the interior courtyard, which not only shielded daily activities from outside eyes, but encouraged wind circulation. The exterior walls only had very small openings high up to help with ventilation, and to ensure ultimate privacy. This further enhanced an interior that was shielded from the harsh sunlight, and in combination with the thick walls it created a cool, dark womb-like space. The central courtyard was for the use of the family and cooking facilities were placed to one side. The majlis or meeting rooms where male members of the family entertained their male guests were placed separate from the spaces inhabited by the women so as not to violate their privacy. A wall was often placed immediately behind the entrance gate of a house to prevent passersby a glimpse inside. Decorative details included ornately carved wooden outer doors (an Indian influence), intricate wooden lattice-work on windows and patterns on the walls that were modelled on traditional Islamic designs.
Examples of traditional houses can still be found all over the UAE in various states: from crumbling to newly restored.